Top 10 Causes of Death among Guyanese

Ischemic Heart Disease 15%

Ischemic Heart Disease

Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is a condition caused by decreased blood supply to the heart muscle, resulting in chest pain (angina) and other symptoms. It is the most common form of heart disease and a leading cause of death worldwide. It is caused by narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries, the vessels that supply blood to the heart muscle. Risk factors for IHD include age, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes, high cholesterol, family history, and a sedentary lifestyle. Treatment options include lifestyle changes, medications, and surgery.

Stroke 13%

Causes of Stroke

  1. High Blood Pressure: High blood pressure is the single most important risk factor for stroke. It can damage and weaken the blood vessels in the brain, leading to a stroke.


  1. Atherosclerosis: Atherosclerosis occurs when fatty deposits build up in the arteries, causing them to narrow and harden. This reduces the amount of oxygen-rich blood that can reach the brain and can lead to a stroke.


  1. Smoking: Smoking increases the risk of stroke by constricting the blood vessels and reducing the amount of oxygen-rich blood that can reach the brain.


  1. Diabetes: Diabetes increases the risk of stroke by damaging the blood vessels, making them more prone to narrowing and hardening.


  1. High Cholesterol: High cholesterol levels can increase the risk of stroke by narrowing and hardening the arteries.


  1. Alcohol Use: Heavy alcohol use can increase the risk of stroke by causing high blood pressure and damaging the blood vessels.


  1. Atrial Fibrillation: Atrial fibrillation is a type of abnormal heart rhythm that can cause blood clots to form, which can travel to the brain and cause a stroke.


  1. Lack of Exercise: Lack of

Cancer 10%

Cancer in Humans

Cancer is a group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells. In humans, cancer can occur almost anywhere in the body and is caused by a variety of factors, including exposure to certain environmental agents, genetic mutations, and lifestyle choices. Treatment for cancer typically involves chemotherapy, radiation, surgery, and other therapies.

causes of Cancer in Humans


  1. Smoking: Smoking cigarettes, cigars, and pipes is the biggest cause of cancer and accounts for about 20% of all cancer deaths.


  1. Diet: Eating a diet high in processed or red meats, or low in fruits and vegetables, increases the risk of developing some cancers.


  1. Sun Exposure: Too much exposure to ultraviolet radiation from the sun increases the risk of skin cancer.


  1. Pollution: Air pollution and other environmental toxins can increase the risk of cancer.


  1. Genetics: Inheriting certain genes, such as those that cause hereditary breast and ovarian cancer, increases the risk of cancer.


  1. Alcohol: Drinking excessive amounts of alcohol increases the risk of some types of cancer.


  1. Infections: Certain viruses, bacteria, and parasites can cause cancer in humans.


  1. Hormones: Hormone therapy and some hormonal contraceptives may increase the risk of certain types of cancer.

Diabetes 9%

Causes and treatment of Diabetes


Causes of Diabetes:


  1. Genetics: Certain genes are linked to an increased risk of developing diabetes.


  1. Obesity: Excess body fat can lead to insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.


  1. Lack of Physical Activity: Not getting enough physical activity can lead to an increased risk of diabetes.


  1. Unhealthy Diet: Eating an unhealthy diet can increase the risk of obesity and diabetes.


  1. Age: The risk of diabetes increases with age.


  1. Race and Ethnicity: Certain races and ethnicities have a higher risk of developing diabetes.


  1. Gestational Diabetes: Women who have gestational diabetes have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life.


Treatment of Diabetes:


  1. Diet and Exercise: Eating a healthy diet and getting regular exercise can help manage diabetes and prevent complications.


  1. Medication: There are several different types of medications available to help manage diabetes.


  1. Insulin Therapy: Insulin therapy is used to help control blood sugar levels.


  1. Self-Monitoring: It is important to monitor your blood sugar levels regularly.


  1. Education: It is important to learn about diabetes

HIV 7%

HIV prevention


HIV prevention involves a combination of strategies, including:


  1. Education and awareness: Increasing public knowledge and understanding of HIV and its transmission is key to prevention. This includes providing information about the virus, how it is transmitted, and how it can be prevented.


  1. Condom use: Consistent and correct use of condoms is one of the most effective ways to prevent HIV transmission.


  1. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP): PrEP is a medication that is taken daily by HIV-negative people to reduce their risk of HIV infection.


  1. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP): PEP is a medication taken immediately following a potential HIV exposure to reduce the risk of HIV infection.


  1. Needle and syringe programs (NSPs): NSPs are community-based programs that provide access to sterile injection equipment, education, and support services to people who inject drugs.


  1. Treatment as prevention (TasP): TasP is a strategy that uses antiretroviral therapy (ART) to reduce the risk of HIV transmission. By taking ART, people living with HIV can reduce the amount of virus in their body, which makes

Hypertensive Heart Disease 4%

Causes of Hypertensive Heart Disease

The exact cause of hypertensive heart disease is not known, but it is thought to be related to chronic high blood pressure (hypertension). Hypertension can damage the heart and blood vessels and lead to other conditions such as coronary artery disease, stroke, and heart failure. Other possible causes of hypertensive heart disease include smoking, diabetes, obesity, and a family history of heart disease.

Lower Respiratory Infections 4%

Lower Respiratory Infections cause


The most common causes of lower respiratory infections are viruses, such as the influenza virus, rhinovirus, coronavirus, and adenovirus. Bacteria, such as Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Mycoplasma pneumoniae, may also cause lower respiratory infections. In some cases, fungi may be responsible for the infection.

Lower Respiratory Infections treatment



Lower Respiratory Infections can be treated with antibiotics, antivirals, or other medications. Depending on the cause and severity of the infection, these may be prescribed by a doctor. To help relieve symptoms and reduce the risk of complications, some other treatments may include:


  • Drinking plenty of fluids
  • Getting plenty of rest
  • Avoiding smoking and smoke exposure
  • Taking over-the-counter medications, such as ibuprofen or acetaminophen, to reduce fever and discomfort
  • Using a humidifier or steam inhaler to help reduce congestion
  • Doing breathing exercises to help clear the lungs
  • Taking a cough suppressant to reduce coughing
  • Getting the flu vaccine annually to help prevent the flu, which can lead to lower respiratory infections

Self-Harm 4%

Self-Harm management


Self-harm management is a process of learning how to cope with strong emotions in healthier ways in order to reduce or replace self-harm behaviors. It is important to note that self-harm management is not a one-time solution, but rather a journey of learning and exploration.


  1. Identifying Triggers: Understanding what situations or emotions can lead to self-harming is essential for self-harm management. Keeping a journal or writing down when and how you feel before, during and after self-harming can help to identify triggers.


  1. Developing Coping Skills: Once triggers have been identified, it is important to establish healthy coping skills to address and manage these emotions in a more constructive way. This can include activities such as deep breathing, mindfulness, exercise, music, art, or talking to a trusted friend or family member.


  1. Seeking Professional Help: If self-harm persists despite attempts to manage it on your own, professional help may be necessary. A qualified clinician can help to provide the necessary support to help you better manage your emotions and behaviors.


  1. Creating a Safety Plan: Creating a safety plan can help to address urges to self-harm. This plan should include a list of

Cirrhosis 3%

Cirrhosis causes and prevention


Cirrhosis is a chronic and progressive liver disease caused by long-term damage to the liver. It is usually caused by excessive drinking, infections, or toxins.


Prevention of cirrhosis includes avoiding alcohol and tobacco, getting vaccinated against hepatitis A and hepatitis B, and avoiding exposure to toxins and certain drugs. Eating a healthy diet, maintaining a healthy weight, and exercising regularly can also help reduce the risk of cirrhosis. In some cases, medications may be prescribed to help reduce the risk of cirrhosis.

Interpersonal Violence 2%

What is Interpersonal Violence


Interpersonal violence is a form of violence that occurs between two or more people in an intimate relationship, such as dating violence, domestic violence, and sexual violence. It is characterized by the use of physical, emotional, psychological, and/or sexual abuse to gain power and control over another person.